Famous case studies in Neuroscience and Psychology

Patient HM (Henry Molaison): Man who experienced anterograde amnesia and partial retrograde amnesia after a bilateral temporal lobectomy to cure his epilepsy. 

Patient RB: Man who experienced a stroke that damaged the CA1 region of his hippocampus. As a result, he lost his ability to form new memories.

Clive Wearing: British man with a severe anterograde and retrograde amnesia. He has lost most of his declarative memory, but his implicit memory is still in tact.

Aphasia

Patient Tan (Victor Louis Leborgne): Man who had severe expressive aphasia after syphilis damaged his left frontal lobe.

Lazare Lelong: A patient of Paul Broca with expressive aphasia. Post mortem examination showed injury to the same area of the brain as seen in other case studies of a similar type of aphasia.

Autism

Jebediah Buxton: Man with savant skills for mathematical calculations. 

Brain Injury

Phineas Gage: Man who survived after a large metal rod was sent flying through his skull and brain. Following the injury, he had a marked change in behavior that was uncharacteristic of him before the injury.

Ischemia

Jill Bolte Taylor: Neuroscientist who experienced a rupture of an arteriovenous malformation, resulting in severe bleeding in the left hemisphere of her brain.

Parkinson's Disease

"The Frozen Addicts": Group of six people in California who took a dopamine toxin called MPTP and had Parkinson's disease like symptoms.

Urbach-Wiethe Disease

Patient SM: Person with severe amygdala damage as a result of highly specific calcification. Because of this damage, she exhibit no fear on behavioral testing.

Famous scientists in the field of neuroscience and psychology

Heiko Braak: German anatomist who proposed the Braak hypothesis of Parkinson's disease, the idea that Parkinson's disease is a prion like disorder that begins in the gut.

Paul Broca: French anatomist who studied individuals with complex speech disorders. Broca's aphasia is named after his research.

Bryan J. Jennett: Scottish neurosurgeon who worked to developed the Glasgow coma scale.

Heinrich Kluver: German - American psychologist. Best known for characterizing the fear response and for his experiments in the psychoactive effects of mescaline.

Otto Loewi: German pharmacologist. Discovered the role of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in maintaining heart rate.

Brenda Milner: British - Canadian psychiatrist. Considered to be the founder of neuropsychology.

Antonio Egaz Moniz: Portuguese neurologist. First person to develop the lobotomy as a tool for psychosurgery.

Franz Nissl: German neuropathologist who developed the Nissl stain, which stains endoplasmic reticulum of neurons.

Larry Squire: American scientist who worked with many individuals with amnesia.

Jean Talairach: French neurosurgeon who developed a coordinate system for identifying specific parts of the brain during surgery.

Graham Teasdale: Scottish neurosurgeon who was a coauthor in the process of developing a method of assessing consciousness called the Glasgow coma scale in 1974.

Endel Tulving: Estonian-Canadian neuropsychologist who researched the types of explicit memory. He argued that episodic memory is different from semantic memory.